Down Syndrome



Down syndrome is the most common genetic disorder causing developmental disabilities. This extra full or partial copy of chromosome 21 resulted by the abnormal cell division is the leading cause of intellectual and developmental delay worldwide.

Facts about Down syndrome (DS)

  • History of Down syndrome:

It is almost certain that there have always been people with Down syndrome. However, the first person to recognize it as an entity was Dr John Langdon Down (1828-1896) an English physician working in Surrey. The syndrome, therefore, bears his name.

  • Down syndrome as a common cause of developmental disability worldwide:
    It occurs at the rate of around 1 in 700 to 1 in 900 live births worldwide. There are currently more than 2,000,000 people with Down syndrome worldwide.
  • Down syndrome is the result of an additional chromosome 21:

What causes the presence of the additional chromosome at the time of conception is still unknown. Although the risk of having a baby with it increases with maternal age, babies with Down syndrome are born at the same rate into families from all social, economic, and racial backgrounds, and to parents of all ages.

  • Down syndrome causes intellectual disability and developmental delays:
    These include increased risks of hearing and vision defects, heart abnormalities, infection, leukaemia, thyroid disorders, and developing Alzheimer-type dementia in later life.
  • Down syndrome is associated with a range of developmental difficulties:
    These include delayed motor skills (such as sitting, crawling, and walking in infancy) and delayed cognitive skills (such as speech and language acquisition and short-term memory abilities).
  • Down syndrome varies in severity among individuals:

People with DS have a range of abilities and disabilities, characteristics, interests, and achievements that vary widely, as with everyone. Down syndrome associates them, it does not define them.

  • People with this disease can live a life worth living:

With access to informed and effective health care, individuals with Down syndrome can now expect to live to 50-60 years of age. With appropriate education, therapy, and social support, the majority of people with Down syndrome can lead to independent and useful lives.


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