Subtypes of ADHD: ADHD has three subtypes.
- Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive:
This subtype includes the majority of symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity (approx. 6 or more symptoms) with less symptoms of inattentiveness.
- Predominantly inattentive:
Children with this subtype have difficulties getting along with other children. They are unable to pay attention to what they are doing.
This subtype includes the majority of symptoms of inattention category with the fewer symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity, although hyperactivity-impulsivity may still be present to some degree.
- Combined hyperactive-impulsivity and inattentiveness:
Most children have the combination of both the hyperactive-impulsivity and inattentiveness.
There are treatment methods to relieve many of the disorder’s symptoms, but unfortunately, there’s no cure. Though with proper treatment, children or even adults having ADHD can be perform great in academics and lead productive lives. Researchers are focused to develop more effective treatments to treat and prevent ADHD. They also use new tools such as brain imaging, to better understand ADHD and to find more effective ways to treat and prevent it.
What are the symptoms of ADHD in children?
Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness are the basic behaviours of ADHD. It is considered normal for all children to be inattentive, hyperactive, or impulsive sometimes; however, for the children having ADHD, these behaviours are more severe and occur more often. A child having these behaviours for 6 or more months has more chances of developing the disorder.
The children having the symptoms of inattention;
- Are easily distracted
- Forget things easily
- Find difficulty in focusing on one thing
- Find trouble in completing the home task
- Not appear to listen when addressed
- Get easily confused and move slowly
- Find difficulty in processing the information as quickly and accurately as the others do
Children who have symptoms of hyperactivity:
- Can’t stay calm in their seats
- Talk endlessly
- Touch or play with anything and everything in their reach
- Find trouble sitting still, i.e., for dinner or during any activity in class
- Remain constantly in motion
- Find difficulty doing quiet tasks or activities
Children who have symptoms of impulsivity:
- Are exceptionally anxious
- Blurt out improper remarks, demonstrate their feelings without restriction, and act without thinking about the outcome.
- Have trouble sitting tight for things they need or holding up their turns in games
- Often intrude on discussions or others’ activities.
What Causes ADHD?
Researchers are still finding the causes of ADHD, although many studies suggest that genes play a major role. But it is believed that ADHD is caused by a combination of factors. Along with genetics, researchers think that there might some other factors too like environmental factors, brain injuries, nutrition, and the social environment that can contribute to ADHD.
- Genes: Studies show that certain genes may make people more likely to develop the disorder. This may one day help researchers to prevent the disorder before symptoms develop, if they know the genes involved in developing the disorder. Knowing about specific genes could also bring the researchers to better treatments.
- Environmental factors: Exposure to high levels of lead can sometimes be the cause of ADHD. Studies show other potential factors too like cigarette smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy.
- Brain injuries: Children with the history of a brain injury at any point may show some behavioural changes similar to those of ADHD.
How is ADHD treated?
Reducing the symptoms of ADHD is compulsory to make the person more productive in his/her life. Unfortunately there’s no cure for ADHD yet, but treatments help the children with ADHD by relieving the symptoms and improving their lives. Currently available treatment methods that pediatricians prescribe include: medication, psychotherapy, education/training, or a combination of these treatment methods.